This standard is issued under the fixed designation A/AM; the number 1 This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A05 on Metallic-. In all cases only the current version of the standard as published by ASTM is to be considered the official document. Designation: A – 76 (Reapproved ) . ASTM A – A M – 02 – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
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Asymmetrical Design Symmetrical sections such as I-beams and tubing will be less likely to distort than asymmetrical pieces camber beams, channels, tees, custom beams, girders astm a384 the thermal expansion astm a384 above and below the natural axes balance each other.
Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. Astm a384 abstract is a brief summary astm a384 the referenced standard. Common distorted and warped members of assemblies are sheets or plates assembled by welding or riveting. Additionally, the installation of diagonal members should be performed after galvanizing.
ASTM A _图文_百度文库
Specify symmetrically rolled sections astm a384 of angle or channel frames. Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. After galvanizing, these products should be air cooled instead of quenched to minimize induced stress from the cooling cycle.
Symmetrical astm a384 such as I-beams and tubing will be less likely to distort than asymmetrical pieces camber beams, channels, tees, custom beams, girders because the thermal expansion forces above and below the natural axes balance each other. The overall amount of welding can be minimized by using bolted connections or performing astm a384 after hot-dip astm a384.
Practice ASTM A provides guidance on safeguarding against warpage and distortion for optimum hot-dip galvanizing and shall be complied with in both design and fabrication.
ASTM A384 Recommendations
astm a384 Welding results in astm a384 residual stress in small areas of an assembly due to the extreme temperature differences experienced. Therefore, steel thicknesses should vary as little as possible throughout the assembly. Historical Version s – view previous versions of standard.
This specification deals with safeguarding against warpage and distortion astm a384 hot-dip galvanizing of steel assemblies. Minimize Thick and Thin Astm a384 in the Same Assembly When two steels of different thicknesses are assembled and brought up to galvanizing temperature, the thinner steel heats up and expands more quickly than the thicker steel. The following can cause warpage and distortion: When two steels of different thicknesses are astm a384 and brought up to galvanizing temperature, the thinner steel heats up and expands more quickly than the thicker steel.
All efforts should be made to keep the stresses in the construction as low as possible right from the beginning to enable the steel to absorb the internal stresses completely. Within the text of this specification and where appropriate, SI units are shown in parentheses. The following displays xstm methods to satm or eliminate the potential for warpage and distortion.
Steel invariably contains internal stresses induced at the mill a3844 rolling operations used to bring structures, plate, and sheet astm a384 the final thickness. Where welding before galvanizing cannot be avoided, the internal stresses in the connections can be minimized by avoiding joint designs or weld lengths which are greater astm a384 statically required, and by placing welds near to and symmetrically around the neutral axis – aligning welds so that shrinkage and opposing forces are balanced rather than all pulling in the same direction.
Furthermore, cylindrical structures are less likely to warp astm a384 distort than astm a384 or elliptical ones.
ASTM A Recommendations | American Galvanizer’s Association
Avoid Susceptible Thin Sheet Steels Steel invariably contains internal stresses induced at the mill from rolling astm a384 used to bring structures, plate, and sheet to the final thickness.
ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete astm a384 up to aatm.
The design astm a384 fabrication of the product to be galvanized are the responsibilities of the designer and the fabricator. Optimize Welding Before Hot-Dip 3a84 Welding results in significant residual stress in small areas of an assembly due to the extreme temperature differences experienced.
Oftentimes sheet astm a384 plate can be returned to a flattened state using a jig or by weighing the product down on a flat surface during the cool-down.
Standard: ASTM A384
Where excessive cold working or tight bend radii cannot be avoided, the product should be stress relieved per the aa384 provided within ASTM A, Section 6.
Inch pounds and SI units are astm a384 necessarily exact equivalents. Wherever possible, galvanize thick and thin portions separately and join them after galvanizing. Suggested corrections for panel fabrication are astm a384.